Commercial Real Estate Scouts

If you’ve evaluated any of the ‘legitimate work at home jobs’ – you can probably appreciate there are plenty of decisions to be made in choosing the right one.

One of the main questions is how you to find your source of “leads” or opportunities with regards to a specific business. For Commercial Real Estate Property Scouts, it’s is no different any of the other of the legitimate work at home jobs.

Fortunately. leads are quite a bit different for professional Commercial Real Estate Property Scouts, because you don’t have to sell anybody anything. That’s 100% different thean every other business opportunity, isn’t it? You are looking for real estate opportunities, the kind investors would be hungry to put in their portfolio.

And here’s the important insight:

Investors are always looking for great commercial real estate deals. Property Scouts are trained know where to find great deals to present to the investors, who are always are hot for good deals.

Fortunately this problem too has already been solved as well. Which makes Commercial Real Estate Property scouting one of the best legitimate work at home jobs this year as well as the easiest.

Why?

Because a person who is a professional Property Scout has two main alternatives to generating viable deals: Their local area in which they live and the Internet. A savvy property scout will take advantage of both strategies.

In their regional area, an ambitious property scout will always be scouting for promising properties for sale. This strategy doesn’t take any money. You just have to know what the investors want to acquire and be willing to take action. Because you can definitely make a lot of money when you find a property an investor is willing to acquire.

Making money depends on finding or generating deals the investors are looking for. It’s good to know there are always lots of promising properties, and they are located in scores of websites on the Internet.

In a little over an hour or so each day, ambitious property scouts can find more leads than they know what to do with.

Having the exact websites search, and having the precise profile the investors want to acquire- the search is much like hunting for treasure. [As you may know, being a treasure hunter is loads of fun.] Here’s some of the aspects they are trained in:

1. Knowing the specific types of commercial real estate properties the investors want to acquire

2. Knowing the pricing of commercial real estate properties the investor group wants to purchase

3. Using a very special set of keywords that cause their search results to be much more fruitful, so they are more efficient

4. Having specific checklists and other necessary materials to access the winners and avoid the ‘loser’ properties

5. Having pre-determined formulas to apply to potential commercial properties, to see if they’re really promising

6. Specializing in one dedicated type of property, such as raw land, or shopping centers, or multi-family residences.

As you can see, while it’s one the legitimate work at home jobs, it is also a way to generate revenue. And not only is it a small business, it is a turnkey system.

So property scouting is one of the ‘legitimate work at home jobs’. You don’t have to waste your time doing things that make no difference. Things that won’t make you any money or give you the lifestyle you want. Property Scouting is it for me.

It is definitely qualifies as one of the ‘legitimate work at home jobs.’

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLN6rgFxWzw

Free MP3 Music Download

With the emergence of the MP3 format, free music, unlike before, is no longer hard to come by. The Internet is practically teeming with free MP3 music downloads for all types of music enthusiasts. Although there has been some questions raised on the legal issues involved with online peer-to-peer file sharing, continued patronage of free MP3 music downloads has never quite died down. In fact, it is safe to say that it seemed to have acquired new life and vigor.

Free MP3 Music Download: What is MP3?

MP3 is a shortcut for MPEG – ½ Audio Layer 3. It is sometimes referred to as MPG3, MPG-3, MPG Level 3, MPG Level III, MPEG 3, et cetera. In essence, MP3 is a compressed and formatted copy of an original audio file.

The equations and algorithms used in the MP3 format are similar to that used in JPG when compressing photographs. If you notice, a JPG photo is not quite the same as that of the original. You notice some blurred or darkened parts, blotches, and some minor flaws that are too small to be noticed by the casual observer. This is the effect of file compression.

And because MP3 uses the same fractal-based algorithms as JPG, it should be noted that MP3 does not necessarily sound exactly the same as the original audio file. However, the difference in the sound of both file formats is too subtle and not enough to discount the many benefits of MP3.

Free MP3 Music Download: Why is it free?

There are two reasons why free MP3 music downloads are widely available. First is the fact that some musicians with real talent find it hard to break into the music business. Most artists who actually made it are groomed by recording industry moguls to look and sound that way in order to cater to the wants and music preference of the masses. It’s true that this isn’t very nice but it’s a fact that all struggling musicians have to grapple with. If you are going to be successful, comprises have to be made. Those who are unwilling to compromise or change just to please find themselves frustrated for they have no outlet for their many talents. This is where free MP3 music downloads come in.

Several sites, such as MP3.com, MP3Songs.org, MP3Unsigned.com, and others, offer opportunities for unsigned artists to publish their works. Online users will find free MP3 music downloads by these artists, listen to it, and judge it by its sound. Many artists have been discovered this way through free MP3 music downloads that serve as a portal to let the general public know that they too exist.

Another reason why free MP3 music downloads are offered is the theory that people use it in product sampling. With free MP3 music downloads, you can sample the work of new artist, listen to a few tracks in an album, or listen to bits of a new single, before going out to the record store to buy the CD.

Informal polls have been conducted to test this theory on free MP3 music downloads and it has been found that many people do go out and buy the record after listening to it online.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8L76Ne4AYx8

Opening The Hips With The Pigeon Pose

A common request in any yoga class is for hip openers like the Pigeon Pose. Although hip openers can be challenging, they are popular because they can also be very satisfying, both physically and emotionally.

Our hips tend to be extremely tight. Most people spend much of their day sitting which renders their hips joints immobile and reduces their agility. Also, everyday activities like walking and common sports such as cycling and running involve hip strength but not hip flexibility. Most of us lead very busy lives and this leads to stress. This stress in turn creates tension in our bodies and often results in further locking up our already tight hip sockets.

Incorporating Pigeon Pose into your daily routine will help you to unlock your hips, move with greater ease and relieve a considerable amount of tension.

This pose stretches the hip flexors and the hip rotators, providing a terrific solution to problems arising from hip tightness. Since it also requires internal rotation in the back leg and external rotation in the front leg, it will have a positive effect on your whole body, perhaps even allowing you to move more freely after consistent practice.

The Pigeon Pose isolates various muscles in the hips, reducing stiffness and increasing flexibility. It is this isolation of muscles that can make this pose so challenging. Be aware that there is definitely some physical work involved with the practice of this asana. The key is to bring your attention to and observe the sensations created in your body during your practice.

On your mat, go on all fours with your knees below your hips and your hands underneath your shoulders. Bring the right knee forward until it touches the right wrist while maintaining a straight line between the right thigh and the sides of the mat. Slowly move your right foot and shin toward the middle of your body until your foot is directly below your left hip. Straighten the left leg toward the back of the mat.

Don’t lean forward but walk your hands back and lower both sides of the pelvis toward the mat. Keeps your hips straight and level as the pelvis releases. You can use a block or a folded blanket if you have trouble lowering the hips evenly.

Press the fingertips firmly into your mat and lengthen the sides of your waist as your hips continue to settle. This will help keep your lower back long and free from strain.

Inhale deeply and walk the hands forward as you lengthen in the midsection. Exhale as you fold forward and lower the elbows to the floor. The weight that is released in the hips can be adjusted by using the arms. Using the arms to support the body can ease any discomfort felt in the hips.

Pay attention to the sensations in your hips and buttock. If it feels extremely uncomfortable, a shift in alignment may be required. Remember, the idea is to relieve tension, not to create additional tension in your joints.

Keeping the hips level is vital in the practice of the Pigeon Pose. If the hips are uneven, an imbalance will result when you fold forward. To offset this, a folded blanket may be placed under the right buttock (if you are extending the right knee).

Keep the thigh of your front leg lined up parallel to the sides of the mat. Your front foot should be directly beneath your back hip. Bring your breath into your hips and observe the sensations running through them. Relax the muscles in your face and let go of thoughts appearing in your mind. Allow your body to melt to the floor as you continue to breathe into your hips.

Stay in the forward fold for 5 – 10 breaths. Then inhale and come back up. Lift your hips away from the floor as you press into your fingertips. Transition to downward dog and take 5 deep breaths, observing how you feel in your hips. Then switch to the other side.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hAc8_NKJuPo

How To Fly Stunt Kites

A stunt kite will generate a substantial amount of pull when it reaches speeds of up to 100 miles per hour. With this capability, some of the maneuvers can be very exciting with the power generated at such speeds. Be aware that stunt kites can also cause accidents if the user has not enough knowledge to handle them. The flight characteristics need to be understood and by learning on how to fly one will give you an exceptional amount of pleasure.

As a beginner and in the market for your first stunt kite, one area of consideration is the length of its control lines. Look for control line length that is long enough for you to be able to control as a beginner. A key note to remember is that control lines that are longer will give you more time to respond in controlling the kite. If its length is shorter, you need fast response times which as a beginner you may not be ready for yet. The short control lines will make fast paced maneuvers that are very precise fast paced and will make the kite soar faster. In choosing the right length of a line for your kite depends on what you want and it’s a matter of how adventurous you are and how good your hand to eye coordination is.

It is also advisable that when flying your kite you need to have a helper. It is rare to have a perfect kite launch during the first try. The helper provides assistance to the kite pilot making it easier to learn. A helper gives a little lift to your kite to help it glide to the air. Of course you won’t always be successful; you will experience some trial and error before achieving the correct timing.

You need also to consider the place where you are going to fly your kite. Find for an open area that is far from power lines and trees. Never fly your kite during a thunderstorm to prevent some accidents. Never fly your kite over houses, people or animals. Make sure that you choose a site that is far from danger. A good stunt kite pilot always considers safety and hazard free flying sites.

Once you have successfully launched your kite up in the sky, the next step is on how to learn how to control it. Steering or maneuvering the kite needs the correct timing. It’s like a glider wherein you can steer from right to left. If you want your kite to go left, pull the left line otherwise pull the right line to steer your kite going right. Going left and right or going back and forth is simple first maneuver as a beginner. If you want to have it slow down, move towards your kite and if you want to make it soar or move faster, pull the handles at the same time and step backward. In landing, just steer your kites from left to right or right to left to the edge of the wind window. This will slow the kite and slowly drop to the ground for a landing.

Make sure that when you have achieved your goal in making your kite stay in the air, maintain attention and alertness. It is not necessary to show off yet like raising one hand. You might end up letting go of your kite and crash it. Practice first on basic flight then progress to stunts is the normal order or the piloting process.

Even a pro kite pilot will experience some problems in flying their stunt kites. There are some elements in flying kites that are uncontrollable. It is very common that line sometimes twist during flying. Not to worry, just reverse the turn back in the opposite direction to unwind the twist. So wrap the line three times in one direction then just unwind three times in the opposite direction. Remember that you cannot control the wind speed and controlling your kite sometimes is unpredictable.

Flying a stunt kite is not as just easy as you might think. It will require practice and some understanding of just how the wind window works. Proper training is very easy to come by many ways. Stunt kite flying lesions are available on free videos. You can also find some very good graphic presentation available on the internet.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-nD5yDFuWCQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hT4FfskHKc

How To Build Working Model Airplanes

Why is building model airplanes such a popular hobby?

Maybe because it is a great combination between exciting adventure and educational experience. There is no surprise that this hobby is as popular within adults as it is within children. It can be easy enough for a child and challenging enough for an adult to build a model airplane.

Some people like to build static scale models. They require very precious work and great attention to the details. But for me the most glorious building experience is to make model airplanes that really fly. Seeing your model soaring in the sky is the true reward to all your efforts. Sounds tempting? Let’s start!

Here are your options to build a working model airplane:

Build a Free Flight Airplane The free flight model airplanes are simple to build. The most important thing to watch when building is the symmetry of the wings and the aerodynamic. You can build free flight models from wood or plastic.

This kind of model aircraft is a good place to start for beginners. Just don’t get disappointed if your first model doesn’t fly very well.

Build an RC Aircraft Building a remote control airplane requires deep technical knowledge. So should you skip this option? Not necessary – even if you are technically challenged, you can simply use a ready remote control tool and engine. Then, just build the parts of the aircraft together, paint and you have it.

Even with a ready engine, this option is more appropriate for more advanced aviation modelists.

Build a Rubber Band Powered Airplane You must have seen this kind of models when you were a child. They are so cute and simple – a great project even for kids!

Don’t underestimate the complexity of these models however. Just like with the free flight aircraft, aerodynamic and symmetry play a big role here. Again, balsa wood and plastic are the most appropriate materials to use.

Build a Flying Helicopter Helicopters are really a different category. If we talked about static models it wouldn’t matter so much, but building a flying model helicopter is a real art! In this case your only option is an RC helicopter, because I still have to see a free flight one that flies good.

The remote control of the model helicopters is much more complicated too, so unless you have a lot of experience with electronics, you would prefer to use a ready one.

And there are three ways to build any of the above model airplanes:

Get a Kit The most popular and the easiest option to build a working model airplane is by using an aircraft kit. The kits contain all the parts you need plus detailed instructions what to do with them. Some kits are called almost-ready-to-fly which means they are, well, almost built. You just can’t go wrong with them! Well, you can, but it takes some talent.

If you have never build a flying model airplane before, using a kit is the most recommended option.

Use Plans What, building with a kit is not challenging enough for you? You are not alone! A lot of people prefer to build everything themselves. They only need a detailed plan since they are not aviation engineers. Many plans can be found online for free and some are sold for just few bucks.

How hard is to build an airplane like that? It depends on the model complexity, the material and your experience.

Build Completely From Scratch And if you are really truly enthusiastic and experienced in building model airplanes, you would certainly enjoy the idea to construct and build it entirely yourself.

Of course to do that you must know avionics, aerodynamics and physics – and you’d better have built many models with plans or kits before.

Are you ready to start the journey? You have so many options to choose from. If you feel confused and don’t know what to choose, learn more about the model airplanes.

Listening To Soothing Music Is A Great Way To Relax!

All of us like listening to music and each one of us has an individualistic preferences. We have at times listened to the ‘Go-Gos’ in a car or sang the ‘Melody; ourselves at our graduation. We may have listened to ‘Ode to Joy’ at a wedding and heard Bruce Springsteen or Madonna while in college. Even though tastes differ, each one of us listens to music and has a favorite type of music and a favorite singer or band.

Music is not only fun but also gratifying. It has a soothing effect on the listener and calms the nerves. Music touches our lives in various ways that are sometimes conspicuous and sometimes subtle. And that is the reason why it is uncommon to find someone who does not listen to any kind of music.

Dentists play music in their waiting rooms and clinics. Many operation theatres have channel music running. Drivers prefer to drive through a maze of unending traffic while listening to music and even baseball players have been known to hum along during warm-up. These days most corporate houses have unobtrusive instrumental music playing in their offices all the time. This reduces job stress.

It seems that the reason why music has a comforting effect on us is because it reminds us of the first time we heard it in our mother’s womb. Thus it provides us with a sense of security and well being. Many researches have been done on the physiological aspect of music and it has been discovered that Celtic or Native American music wherein the flute dominates is most relaxing. The serotonin in the body increases with the effect of music and this provides us with a feeling of elevation. Music also is known to reduce the heart rate and increase body temperature. In fact it has also been found out that any kind of music performed in person helps to put the left and the right brain in sync. Those performing also go through a cathartic effect and get a sense of accomplishment.

There are ways in which one can enhance this effect of music. The best way to de-stress yourself is to lie back with a pair of headphones and become a part of the music. Select music that has a pace slower than 72 minutes per minute. This will ease your heartbeat and relax you. Combine music with your morning walk and you will feel doubly rejuvenated by combining the goodness of exercise and music.

Sounds of nature are music to the ears and they can have a similar effect. Sit back on the garden bench and hear the music of the birds, the cricket, the wind and the rustling leaves. You can also find the sounds of the woods or the ocean captured in a CD these days.

Choose any kind of music that you like for relaxation. It is important that you enjoy the general hum and beat of the chosen music to be able to extract the maximum benefit. In our normal lives, we tend to get too busy in our past paced lives to take enough advantage of this cathartic effect of euphony.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eEEEnG5baRchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ej1kJfTnHyo

Dance Ethics And Codes Of Conduct

Just like any sport or hobby, dance has a code of ethics, as well as a code of conduct. One of the most important things that all dancers should remember is that everyone is there to have a good time. We must all share the dance floor and be kind and courteous to other dancers. Never video another dancer, whether on the social dance floor or in a dance class without first asking permission. If you are in a class situation remember to be respectful of the instructor as well as other dancers.

While you may have already learned what the instructor is teaching, it is very possible that your partner has not. If there is a question, be sure and direct it to the instructor. That is what they is being paid for. Excessive chatter is disrupting to the class and you, or your partner may miss that little piece of information that you needed to improve your dancing or execute a particular pattern. This may sound harsh, but try and remember that everyone is there to learn.

Proper clothing and foot attire is highly recommended. The last thing you want to do while dancing is worry about your clothing staying on or being too constrictive or uncomfortable. As far as foot wear, you need either leather or suede bottomed dance shoes or boots. Thick rubber soles or shoe that fall off your feet can lead to injury. Sandals can be especially troublesome, more so when they do not have a back strap.

Since we are all dancing closely together a shower, clean clothing, deodorant and breath mints are in order. It is also recommended to forgo, or use perfumes sparingly as many people have sensitivities to them. If you sweat profusely, a towel and an extra shirt or two may be in the cards for you. Chewing gum is not recommended as it often ends up on the floor and then on someones expensive dance shoe. Not to mention that it looks pretty tacky to see a dancer out on the dance floor chomping on gum.

Be tidy and respectful to the club or studio that you are dancing in. You should also always pick up after yourself. This is especially important in a classroom setting. Classrooms often have mints set about the studio for their students and picking up all the little wrappers from around the room after the class is not the instructors job. Leaving empty water bottles is also, “Just not Cool!” While social dancing it is proper etiquette to to accept an invitation to dance, but it is also acceptable to decline. If you decline, it would be improper etiquette to accept another dance offer to the same song.There are always exceptions but try to follow these guidelines.

While some of these suggestions may seem rather obvious to most, look around and I am sure you will see at least one or two offenders! Sometimes people are just unaware or do not think, or are just so wrapped up in remembering all they need to do during a dance that they just plain don’t think about anything else. Here’s hoping to bring awareness to those who are unaware and thanks to those of you that are! Let’s all work hard at maintaining an awesome dance community!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZqI_nu5EVg

Delaware’s Prisoner Of War Camps

Traditionally, the definition of a prisoner of war camp is a location for containment of combatants which have been captured by their enemy in a time of war. It is based similarly on the principles of an internment camp which would be used for the civilian population.

Although a prisoner of war is usually a member of the military it is likely that in a time of crisis the civilian population as well as the POW’s could be intermingled. Like any country in the world America has had its share of prisoner of war camps throughout its history. During the American Civil War there were established POW camps all along the eastern seaboard from New York to Georgia and they were populated with enemy combats of various nationalities such as English, French or German.

During American’s Civil War, the prisoner of war camps were widespread on both the union and confederate sides. The prison camps on both sides fueled many rumors and facts setting forth the atrocities that resulted from mass starvation and famine, abundant infectious diseases, cold and they ultimately resulted in many cases of deaths involving hundreds of prisoners daily. Usually the high death rates were attributed to malnutrition, extremely poor sanitary conditions, and the lack of fuel. The shortage of medicines contributed greatly as well as the grouse maltreatment displayed of the prisoners on both sides. With the vast amount of hate generated from both sides the unlivable conditions escaped the scrutiny of the media at all levels.

Delaware has been home to several POW camps over the years. Of particular note is Fort Delaware located near Delaware City. Fort Delaware was originally devised as a harbor defense facility in 1859. It is located on Pea Patch Island along the Delaware River. During the Civil War the Union had control of Fort Delaware and used it as a prison to house captured Confederate prisoners of war within its walls.

The fort is in effect a massive fortress composed of granite and brick. Surrounding the fort are its hefty 30 feet thick walls which stand 32 feet high. During the 19th century it was equipped with the most modern defenses of its time. To enter the fort one enters the sally port crossing a drawbridge and transverse a 30-foot wide moat which surrounds the fort on all sides.

Fort Delaware today is currently a park maintained by the State Park Service. It was over one hundred years ago that the thousands of captured confederate soldiers would be brought to nearby Delaware City to await transportation to the fort location on Pea Patch Island. Life on the island has been recreated to display what it was like during 1863 complete with the Union troops practicing their daily drills to the various craftsmen needed to live day to day activities.

The second major location of POW activities in the state of Delaware was at Fort DuPont. This fort is separated by the branch canal from Delaware City. This is another park maintained by the Delaware State Parks agency. Many of the current buildings are the actual ones which were used when the facility was employed to house captured German soldiers during World War II.

Located upon the shores of the Delaware River the fort was active during the War of 1812 where cannons were mounted on it in defense of the Delaware River communities against the oncoming British. During the American civil war construction was begun on the installation of the Ten Gun Battery. The fort has seen use as a training garrison in the 20th century for both WWI and II. Its fame was during the Second World War where there were over 3,000 military personnel stationed there. At its height of being a temporary POW camp it contained both German and Italian soldiers. In 1945 there were two waves of German prisoners who were transferred to Boston from the fort. The first wave consisted of 1,750 while the second wave which followed shortly was composed of another 2,000. After the successful transfer of the POW prisoners the fort was decommissioned by the Army and turned over to the State of Delaware. It is now the location for the Governor Bacon Health Center, while in 1992 a portion of the fort area was dedicated as a state park.

While Fort Delaware and Fort DuPont may now be nothing more then a recreational area for vacation enjoyment, I have to ponder the thought that in times of infrastructure breakdown could the two forts perhaps be once again converted to either a POW camp or possibly a containment for civilians suspected of various trumped up crimes? Only time will tell.

Copyright @2010 Joseph Parish http://www.survival-training.info

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qVLxLi_13s

How To Get Paid To Play Online Games

The video gaming industry is well over a $51 Billion dollar business and is growing larger every day. With companies spending many millions over for programmers to create these games they are seeking ways to outsource the testing aspect of the game creation process. Many people I talk to are surprised to hear how to get paid to play online games, but it can actually pay anywhere from $20.00 per hour to more than $50.00 per hour depending on the company you are working for, or how good of an applicant they think you are for their testing.

Here are some questions that are asked on how to get paid to play online games:

1. Why do these companies want to pay gamers for testing their video games?

Many businesses try to push out a product before it has been completely tested and they will end up spending all of their profits on trying to fix the problem. A lot of money could have been saved if they had better testing of the product and got all of the bugs worked out before it was released to the public. This is how it works with the video game industry as well. They would rather pay you to test the game and report any bugs and problems you come across and report the information to them rather than have all those problems crop up after the game is in the public’s hands. So in effect they are saving money by paying you. It may sound contradictory but it’s a method a lot more businesses are implementing.

2. Why don’t programmers find all of the bugs when they are creating the games?

Most programmers are not truly gamers. It is a misconception that the one who made the game will actually be great at playing it as well. There are many facets to a game and it would take many hours of time for the programmers to try to test it themselves. That is why this opportunity is best for those who are serious gamers, willing to spend a few hours a day testing out these video games. A gamer can not only find a glitch faster than a programmer but programmers get paid so much more per hour that it is more cost effective for these companies to pay you for the testing.

3. What are the type of video games you will be testing?

This mainly depends upon what company you are working for, but games for the Xbox360, PS3, PSP, Nintendo DS, and Game Boy have all been tested by beta game testers. When you fill out your application you will put what types of games you would like to test, and obviously the more types you choose the more opportunities you will have to get paid to play these games. Whether you like racing games, War-craft style games, or RPG type games you will have many types of games to choose from in your testing.

There are actually 50 or more companies that are currently hiring out game testers to pay for playing these games. And if you love to play video games then this may be the perfect opportunity for you. Many of these games have not even been released yet so you will get first dibs on trying them out. It is important to leave the companies specific feedback in your testing results as well. This will ensure a continued relationship with the company and allow you to make even more money for playing video games in the future.

Baking Tips For Cakes

So many cooks seem to be under a misapprehension that baking, and most especially cake baking is somehow very difficult. Almost as if there is some mystic art to baking and that you need to be a special kind of person, a ‘baker’ before your cakes will turn-out properly. It’s also true that other cooks approach baking almost obsessively. Treating the process as more of a science than an art, as they obsessively weigh-out each ingredient to the last gramme, afraid that if they don’t follow a recipe to the letter their cakes will never rise. Now it’s true that this approach will work, but it removes most of the fun from cooking. However, if you know a few rules then your cakes can and will rise perfectly each and every time.

The truth is that for a cake to work what you need is air in the mixture… lots of air…

But, before we get to how to make and bake a cake, here’s a brief history lesson. As it happens modern cakes (at least the way we bake them today) are a fairly recent invention, starting in Italy during the first half of the 18th century. By the 1740s these ‘Italian Style Cakes’ were all the rage in London. So, what had changed? Well, prior to the 1700s the traditional raising agent in cakes had been yeast. Cakes were, basically, just sweetened breads. However, with the new techniques yeast was replaced by beaten egg whites.

As yeast grows it converts sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide and it’s these bubbles of carbon dioxide trapped in the batter or dough that makes a cake (and bread) rise. When you whip egg whites they become stiff and as they do so the protein molecules trap air inside them. When this matrix is baked the air expands and this causes the cake to rise.

In fact there’s nothing new in this process and it’s hardly surprising that the trend began in Europe. Indeed, the Romans used this very technique to make cakes and the traditional ‘Pan di Spagna’ (Spanish Bread) had been a staple of Sicilian cuisine for centuries.

The move from active yeast to whipped eggs was a major step-change in the way that cakes were made and baked. However, it was only during the Victorian era that modern cakes as we know them today began to be baked. Suddenly yeast fell out of fashion as the rising agent of choice and bicarbonate of soda ( baking powder or baking soda) became all the rage. In fact, baking soda does a very similar job to yeast. In contact with acid or water and heat bicarbonate of soda breaks down to release carbon dioxide and it’s this gas, as it expands in the oven that makes a cake rise and gives the soft and fluffy texture that we all love.

Adding half a tablespoon of ‘bicarb’ to finely-milled flour before making a cake became all the rage. So much so that flour manufacturers began to add it to flour themselves, so that self-raising flour (sometimes also known as cake flour) was born. But if you don’t have any just add half a teaspoon of baking powder per 200g of ordinary plain flour.

At its heart a cake is a creamed blend of butter (or margarine) and sugar to which eggs and flour are added before baking. The secret to any cake is to do everything thoroughly and to add as much air to the mixture as possible.

The incorporation of air begins with the first process involved in making cakes: that of creaming together the butter (or margarine) and sugar. Do this vigorously… and when the recipe asks you to cream until pale and creamy do just that. The mixture really should be paler than when you started and the butter should be soft and the sugar completely incorporated into it. Also, beat as vigorously as you can, as this is the first stage into which you can incorporate air into the batter.

Next, in most classic cake batters you typically add eggs to the batter. These make the batter more liquid but they also act as the scaffold for the final baked cake to hold its shape and they also add flavour. It’s the protein in the egg (the egg whites) that provide the structure and the fats (the egg yolks) that add the flavour. When incorporating the eggs into the creamed butter always use lightly-beaten eggs and always incorporate just a little of the egg at a time. The more thoroughly you can combine the eggs with the butter mix the better your resulting cake mix will be. After all, it’s the butter that makes the cake moist and it’s the eggs that let it hold it’s shape.

However, in terms of the cake’s actually rising in the oven perhaps the most important factor in making the cake is the flour. Always use the best and finest flour you can. Use self-raising for convenience, but plain flour to which baking powder has been added also works. When using flour always sift it into a bowl before use. This removes any lumps it also separates the flour particles. This both introduces more air into the cake mixture but also means that each flour particle can be coated into the butter mix and will hold itself better in the cake. You’re also getting rid of any static charges that may hold the flour particles together and give you a lump of raw flour in the middle of the cake.

To add the flour to the egg and butter mix tip the flour in then fold into the egg mixture, do not stir. This means that instead of using a round and round stirring motion (which acts to remove air from the batter) you’re using and up and down motion, which actively puts more air into the mix and gives you a lighter cake in the end. At this point, never, ever, leave the cake sitting as the bicarbonate of soda in the flour is already being converted into carbon dioxide and the quicker you get the cake in the oven the better and more well risen it will be.

Typically you would use a moderate oven (170°C